Minggu, 10 Oktober 2010

DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH - ARTICLE

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)
If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.
Statements. When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
Pronouns
present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
place and time expressions
tenses (backshift)

Type Example
direct speech “I speak English.”
reported speech
(no backshift) He says that he speaks English
reported speech
(backshift) He said that he spoke English.

Statements in Reported Speech
Pronouns
In reported speech, We often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.
Example: She says, “My mum doesn’t have time today.” – She says that her mum doesn’t have time today.
Tenses (No backshift)
Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in Simple Present (e. g. He says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular).
Example: He says, “I speak English.” – He says that he speaks English.

Tenses (Backshift)
We must change the tense if the introductory clause is in Simple Past (e. g. He said). This is called backshift.
Example: He said, “I am happy.” – He said that he was happy.
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Simple Present
Present Progressive
Simple Past
Present Perfect Simple
Past Progressive
Present Perfect Progressive
Future I (going to)was / were going to
Conditional I (would) Simple Past
Past Progressive
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Progressive
Past Perfect Progressive
Future I (will) Conditional I (would)


The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change.
Example: He said, “She might be right.” – He said that she might be right.

Place and Time expressions
For place and time expressions you have to check whether place and time are the same in direct and reported speech or not. Check out the following example:
It is Friday and you meet James at a restaurant. James tells he saw Caroline in this restaurant today. (“I saw Caroline here today.”) A few minutes later, Helen joins you and you want to report what James has told you. Place (here) and time (today) are the same and you can say:
→ James said that he had seen Caroline here today.

One day later, you meet Mary at the same restaurant. Again, you want to report to her what James has told you. The place is the same, but not the time (it happened yesterday). So you would say:
→ James said that he had seen Caroline here yesterday.

Still a few days later, Tom rings you at home. Again, you want to report to him what James has told you. However, now you are not at the restaurant (but at home) and a few days have passed since then. So you would say:
→ James said that he had seen Caroline at the restaurant on Friday. Or
→ I met James in a restaurant on Friday and he said that he had seen Caroline there that day.

Therefore you always have to think which place and time expressions are logical in a certain situation. In the following table, you will find ways of transforming place and time expressions into reported speech.
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Today
Now
Yesterday
…. Days ago
Last week
Next year
Tomorrow
Here
This
These That day
Then
The day before
…..Days before
The week before
The following year
The next day before
There
That
Those

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:
pronouns
present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
place and time expressions
tenses (backshift)

Also note that you have to:
transform the question into an indirect question
use the interrogative or if / whether.
Type Example
with interrogative direct speech
reported speech “Why don’t you speak English?”
He asked me why I didn’t speak English.

Without interrogative direct speech
reported speech “Do you speak English?”
He asked me whether / if I spoke English.

For pronouns, tenses and place / time expressions see statements in reported speech.
Direct Speech Reported Speech
statement He said: “She lives in London.” He said that she lived in London
Question with interrogative He asked:“Where does she live?“ He asked where she lived.
Question without interrogative He asked: “Does she live in London?“ He asked whether she lived in London.
He asked if she lived in London.

It is also important that you use an indirect question in reported speech, after the interrogative or ‚ “whether/ if” you continue the sentence as if it were a statement (subject-verb etc.). The auxiliary verb “do” is not used in indirect questions.
Example: He asked: “Where does she live?” – He asked where she lived.

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:
pronouns
place and time expressions
Type Example
direct speech “Carol, speak English.“
reported speech He told Carol to speak English.

For pronouns and place / time expressions see statements in reported speech. Tenses are not relevant for requests – simply use ‚to + infinite verb.
Example: She said, “Say hello to your mum.“ – She asked me to say hello to my mum. For negative requests, use ‚not to‘ + infinite verb.
Example: He said, “Don’t give up, Bob.“ – He advised Bob not to give up.

Additional Information and Exeptions
Apart from the above mentioned basic rules, there are further aspects that you should keep in mind, for example:
main clauses connected with and / but
tense of the introductory clause
reported speech for difficult tenses
exeptions for backshift
requests with must, should, ought to and let’s

Main Clauses connected with and / but
If two complete main clauses are connected with ‚ “and” or ‚“but”, put that after the conjunction.
Example: He said,“I saw her but she didn’t see me.“ – He said that he had seen her but that she hadn’t seen him.“

If the subject is left out in the second main clause (the conjunction is followed by a verb), do not use ‚that‘.
Example: She said,“I am a nurse and work in a hospital.“ – He said that she was a nurse and worked in a hospital.

Tense of the Introductory Clause
The introductory clause usually is in Past Tense.
Example: He said that …

Present Tense is often used to report a conversation that is still going on, e. g. during a phone call or while reading a letter.
Example: “I am fine.” – Tom says / writes that he is fine.

The introductory clause can also be in another tense. In the following table you can see, for which tense of the introductory clause you have to use backshift in reported speech.
No Backshift
if introductory clause is in … Backshift
if introductory clause is in …
Simple Present (He says …)
Present Perfect (He has said …)
Future I will (He will say …)
Future I going to (He is going to say …) Simple Past (He said …)
Past Perfect (He had said …)
Future II ( He will have said …)
Conditional I (He would say …)
Conditional II (He would have said …)

Exceptions
Backshift of Simple Present is optional if the situation is still unchanged or if you agree with the original speaker.
Example: “Canberra is the capital of Australia.“
She said that Canberra is / was the capital of Australia.
Backshift of Simple Past and Past Progressive is optional if they cannot be mistakenly taken for backshift of Present Tense. So backshift is not necessary if there is a time expression indicating past.
Example: “She left Boston on Monday.“
He said that she left / had left Boston on Monday.
Simple Past and Past Progressive do not normally change in sentences with when / if.
Example: a. “When I was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly rang.“
She said that when she was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly rang.
b. “If I had more time, I would learn French.“
He said that if he had more time, he would learn French.
Requests
The basic rule for requests is: introductory clause + ‚to‘ + infinite verb.
Example: “Say hello to your mum.“
She asked me to say hello to my mum.
Advise expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise / urge.
Example: “You must read that book.” He advised / urged me to read that book.
The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are various possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should.
Example: “Let’s go to the cinema.“
He suggested going to the cinema.
He suggested that we should go.to the cinema.


ARTICLE
An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the types of reference being made by the noun, and to specify the volume or numerical scope of that reference. The articles in the English language are the and a (with variant form an). An article is sometimes called a noun marker, although this is generally considered to be an archaic term. Articles are traditionally considered to form a separate part of speech. Linguists place them in the category of determiners. Articles can have various functions:
A definite article (English the) is used before singular and plural nouns that refer to a particular member of a group.
Eg: The cat is on the red mat.
In English, a definite article is mostly used to refer to an object or person that has been previously introduced. For example:
At last they came to a piece of rising ground, from which they plainly distinguished, sleeping on a distant mountain, a mammoth bear.... Then they requested the eldest to try and slip the belt over the bear's head. Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi, appendix D
In this example, a bear becomes the bear because a "mammoth bear" had been previously introduced into the narrative, and no other bear was involved in the story. Only previously introduced subjects like "y" or unique subjects, where the speaker can assume that the audience is aware of the identity of the referent (The heart has its reasons) typically take definite articles in English.

An indefinite article (English a, an) is used before singular nouns that refer to any member of a group.
A partitive article indicates an indefinite quantity of a mass noun; there is no partitive article in English, though the words some or any often have that function.
By contrast, the indefinite article is used in situations where a new subject is being introduced, and the speaker assumes that the hearer is not yet familiar with the subject:
Example: There was an old woman who lived in a shoe.
A traditional nursery rhyme

Reflecting its historical derivation from the number word one, the English indefinite article can only be used with singular count nouns. For mass nouns, or for plurals, adjectives or adjective phrases like some or a few substitute for it. In English, pronouns, nouns already having another non-number determiner, and proper nouns usually do not use articles. Otherwise in English, unlike many other languages, singular count nouns take an article; either a, an, or the. Also in English word order, articles precede any adjectives which modify the applicable noun.
In French, the masculine definite article le (meaning the) is contracted with a following word if that word begins with a vowel sound. When the French words de and le are to be used sequentially (meaning of the), the word du is used instead, in addition to the above mentioned use of du as a partitive article.

In various languages other than English, the form of the article may vary according to the grammatical gender, number or case of the noun it combines with. Many languages do not use articles at all, and may use other ways of indicating old vs. new information, such as topic-comment constructions.


SOURCE:
Murpy., Murphy.(1998). “English Grammar In Use”. Eds Seventh. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
(2008).“English Matriculation Program”. Jakarta: Fakulatas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia.
Usman., Lucky.(2005).”Practical English”. Jakarta: PT.Grasindo
http://www.ehd.org/flash.php?mov_id=163language=40&illustrated=1

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